is equal to the power in watts (P = E x I). In AC Circuits, the product of volts and amperes is equal to the power in

watts only, when the volts and amperes are in phase. When the voltage and current are out of phase, the product of the

volts and amperes is greater than the watts consumed by the circuit. For this reason the product of volts and amperes is

called the volt-amperes (VA) of the circuit. This product is also frequently called the apparent power of a circuit.

VA = V X amp or VA = E X I

thus

The value of the power factor may vary from 0 to 1.

P (W) = E(V) x I (amp) x PF

AC generators are rated in terms of VA or Kilovolt-ampere (KVA) output, at a specified frequency and power factor.

For example, a single-phase 60 Hz AC generator rated at 100 KVA would deliver 100 KW of power with a load

producing a power factor of 1. This same generator would provide 80 KW of power with a load at 80-percent power

factor. The maximum load rating of a particular generator is determined by the internal heat it can withstand. As the

power factor goes down, more and more current is required to pass through the generator windings in order to provide

the same amount of voltage (power out). The 100 KVA generator, required to supply a 100 KVA load at 20-percent

power factor would most assuredly have excessive heating in the generator field windings because of the required

increase in DC field current needed to maintain the required power output. Power companies strive to keep the power

factor of their load as high as possible in order to obtain the best generating efficiency for their system. Power

companies often give special rates to large commercial users who maintain loads with high power factors.

typical machine consists of an AC generator and a smaller DC generator built into a single unit (figure 3-11). The

output of the AC generator supplies alternating current to the load for which the generator was designed. The DC

generator's only purpose is to supply the DC needed to maintain the generator field. This DC generator is referred to as

the exciter.

Any rotary generator requires a prime moving force (figure 3-11-B1) to rotate the AC field and exciter armature. This

rotary force is transmitted to the generator through the rotor drive shaft and is usually furnished by a combustion

engine, turbine, or electric motor. The exciter shunt field (2) creates an area of intense magnetic flux between its poles.

When the exciter armature (3) rotates in the exciter field flux, voltage is induced into the exciter

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