Artillery ammunition is designed for use in guns, howitzers, mortars, and recoilless rifles that range in
size from 37mm through 406mm (16-inch). There are four general types of artillery ammunitionfixed,
semifixed, separated, and separate-loading ammunition. See Figure 2, Page 4.
Fixed rounds are used in guns and recoilless rifles. This type of ammunition is issued and loaded as a
complete round. Semifixed rounds are used in 105mm howitzers and all mortars. Semifixed rounds
are issued with the cartridge case and propellant separate from the projectile but in the same container.
Separated rounds are used in large guns. This type of ammunition is issued as two separate
components, a sealed cartridge case and a projectile. Separate-loading rounds are used in larger guns
and howitzers (155mm, 175mm, 8-inch and 16-inch). Separate-loading componentsprojectile,
propelling charge, and primerare issued unassembled and are issued separately.
A complete round of artillery ammunition consists of all the components required to fire a weapon once.
A typical artillery round consists of a projectile, propellant charge, and a fuze and primer.
Projectile. The type of projectile may be antipersonnel (APERS); high-explosive (HE); high-
explosive antitank (HEAT); armor-piercing (AP); high-explosive, dual-purpose (HEDP); and so forth.
See TM 9-1300-200 for a complete listing.
Propellant Charge. Propelling charges consist of a quantity of propellant that has been carefully
designed for the type of ammunition (fixed, semifixed, separated, or separate-loading). The propelling
charge in a round of fixed ammunition is loose in the cartridge case. This charge is not adjustable. In
separated ammunition, the propelling charge consists of a loosely loaded propellant in a primed
cartridge case. This charge is not adjustable. In semifixed howitzer ammunition, the propelling charge
is bagged inside a primed cartridge case. In semifixed mortar ammunition, bags of granular propellant
are attached to the fins or boom. Semifixed propelling charges are adjustable. In separate-loading
ammunition, the propelling charge is contained in cloth bags, divided into multisection charges. These
charges are adjustable.
Fuze. An artillery fuze is a mechanical device used with a projectile to cause it to function as
required. Fuzes are classified according to their position on the projectile and method of functioning.
Examples include base detonating (BD); point-initiating, base-detonating (PIBD); and point-detonating
(PD). Most projectiles require nose fuzing. Exceptions are armor piercing, high-explosive rocket
(APHER) and high-explosive plastic (HEP) projectiles that require base fuzing. Fuzes are classified
according to function as impact, time, proximity, or a combination of these. For example, the
mechanical time, the proximity, and most PIBD fuzes provide a backup function upon impact.
Land mines are devices filled with high explosives or chemical agents. See Figure 3, Page 5. These
munitions are designed to be placed in, on, or above the ground. They are designed to damage or
destroy vehicles, hinder movement of enemy personnel, or contaminate strategic areas. Land mines
are classified as APERS, antitank (AT), chemical, and scatterable. They are also classified as to how
APERS Mines. There are three types of APERS mines. The bounding-type mine is placed
beneath the surface of the ground. When it functions, a fragmentation projectile is expelled from the
mine body. The ascending projectile detonates in the air, propelling fragments in all directions. The
fixed, directional, fragmentation mine (Claymore) is designed to be placed above the ground in the
expected path or direction of the enemy. When the mine explodes, high-speed fragments fan