Base Cover. Since HE rounds have a solid base, they do not use a base plug. However, they do have a
device called a base cover attached to the solid base. The base cover is a thin metal disk that is either crimped,
caulked, or welded to the base. It provides additional assurance that hot gases from the propelling charge will not
penetrate into the projectile cavity. Caulking or sealing rings rather than base covers are ordinarily provided for
projectiles with HE fillers and base-detonating (BD) fuzes.
Small Arms Ammunition
Small arms ammunition ranges in size from .22-caliber through 30-millimeter. It includes 5.56-millimeter through
7.62-millimeter and shotgun gauges. These cartridges are fired from various individual and crew-served
weapons, including rifles, pistols, revolvers, shotguns, submachine guns, and machine guns. The primary
components of a small arms round are the cartridge case (with propellant and primer) and the bullet. (Refer to
Figure 1-4 on page 1-11.)
Dummy Rounds. The physical characteristics
of small arms ammunition depend
on the caliber
of the item.
However, all dummy ammunition is identified either by holes drilled through the cartridge case or by fluted
sections in the cartridge case and no primer components. Examples of dummy small arms rounds are shown in
Blank Rounds. The features of blank small arms ammunition differ depending on the caliber involved.
(Refer to Figure 2-12.) For example, the blank 5.56-millimeter round has no bullet and uses a red rose-petal
crimp to seal the end of the cartridge case. It closely resembles the 5.56-millimeter grenade cartridge. While
there are no more rifle-launched grenades in the system, there may still be some grenade cartridges, so the
single most important feature of the blank is a grooved ring in the cartridge case approximately one-third of the
way up from the cartridge head. The 7.62-millimeter blank round has no bullet, but has an elongated neck sealed
with a red ring. The .50-caliber blank round also has no bullet. It has a red sealing disk in the cartridge case
Ball Ammunition. All ball ammunition is constructed the same regardless of caliber. The only way to
distinguish between ball ammunition and any other type round is by the color of the bullet tip, as already
Grenades are classified according to their method of projection (either hand, rifle, or weapon) and according to
their intended use (either fragmentation, offensive, chemical smoke [burning or bursting], illuminating, or practice).
Hand grenades are small items that may be held in one hand and thrown like a baseball. They have a single fuze
with a pull ring and safety clip (spoon) assembly. It should be noted that, while there are no rifle grenades
currently produced for general Army use, there are specialized units authorized to use rifle grenades that are
procured from other sources.
Fragmentation Hand Grenades. Fragmentation hand grenades may be used as offensive or defensive
weapons. They are normally used to supplement small arms fire in close-combat situations. An example of a
fragmentation hand grenade is shown in Figure 2-13. The M67 grenade is made of steel and is spherical in
shape. It uses a standard pyrotechnic delay fuze that functions 4 to 5 seconds after the safety lever is released.
The color code for the M67 is an olive-drab body with yellow markings. Its DODIC is G881.