restore the body fluids and salts which a burn casualty loses. Caution: If the victim vomits or
even acts as if he might, do not give him any more of the solution. Never use warm water to
make the solution. Warm salt water can cause vomiting.
(2) Treat to prevent infection. With severe burns, there is a great danger of infection. Cover the
burned area carefully with dry, sterile dressing. If clothing covers the burn, cut the cloth and
lift it gently away. Call a physician.
(a) Do NOT pull clothes over the burned area.
(b) Do NOT try to remove pieces of cloth that stick to the skin.
(c) Do NOT try to clean the burn.
(d) Do NOT break burn blisters.
(e) Do NOT put grease, vaseline, or ointment on the burn--NO medications whatsoever.
(f) Do NOT touch the burn with anything except a sterile dressing.
12. CONTROL OF BLEEDING
a. A Vital Rule: Stop the Bleeding Fast. An average man, weighing about 150 pounds, has about 7
quarts of blood. If 50 percent of the blood is lost within minutes or even a few hours, the usual result is
death. The loss of 15 to 25 percent will induce shock. Thus, sudden blood loss, or acute hemorrhage,
calls for quick action to stem the flow of blood from the body. An average adult might tolerate the
sudden loss of a quart of blood, but any greater amount generally becomes a serious matter. Even a small
break in the cardiovascular system can let out a lot of blood in a very short time.
b. Recognize the Type of Bleeding. The cardiovascular system, whose job is circulating the blood
throughout the body, consists of the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins. As the heart beats, it pumps
blood out into the arteries, which carry fresh blood to all parts of the body. The capillaries distribute the
blood farther to all cells in the body. The veins return the blood to the lungs and heart. Consequently, we
may describe bleeding as being arterial, capillary, or venous bleeding.
(1) Arterial bleeding. If an artery is cut or severed, the blood appears bright red in color and
spurts out with each heartbeat. This type of Hemorrhage requires immediate attention
regardless of how slight it may appear. Fortunately, arteries are pretty well protected by
surrounding flesh and are near the skin's surface at only a few points on the body.
(2) Capillary bleeding. An example of capillary bleeding would be a superficial cut such as a
nick you might get in shaving. The blood is also dark red in color, and it is characterized as a