When the applied voltage is below the resonant frequency of the LC circuit, the circuit reactance is inductive.

When the applied voltage is above the resonant frequency of the LC circuit, the circuit reactance is capacitive.

Frequency of resonance equals

(where R is negligible).

Transience is that period during which there is a rapid change from one steady state to another. An example is the

current through a capacitor after a voltage is applied to it.

The study of time constants concerns itself chiefly with the study of any electric circuit during its DC transient periods.

Although a square wave may be AC, each half cycle may be considered a temporary DC voltage. Time constants

involve nonsinusoidal waves such as square waves, triangular waves, and spiked waves.

In the study of circuits it is vital to know how the size of capacitors, resistors, and inductors, along with the frequency,

will determine the rate of the change in the transient wave.

Review the following before starting the detailed explanation of time constants.

EL = IXL,

The resistance (R) is the factor that, if multiplied by the current (I), establishes the voltage across a resistance.

EL = IXL,

where XL = 2fL.

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