Introduction to Timers

Introduction to Nonsinusoidal Waveforms

Figure 1. Periodic nonsinusoidal waveforms

Section II. Frequency-Response Analysis and Transient Response

Section III. Nonsinusoidal Waveform Composition

Nonsinusoidal Waveforms In Common Use

Figure 3. Composition of a short pulse with a long-time interval

Figure 4. Sawtooth wave composition

Figure 5. A square wave with low harmonic content

Figure 6. Highfrequency response to a rectangular wave

Effects of harmonics on pulseduration time

Figure 8. Sawtooth wave frequency response

Section V. Summary and Review

Types of Timers

Types of Timers cont'd

Figure 9. Representative method of timing radar systems

Figure 10. Typical timing of an oscilloscope

Figure 11. Time relationship of timing pulses

Figure 12. Externally synchronized timer block diagram

Figure 12a. Externally synchronized timer block diagram

Figure 13. Timer waveforms

Master oscillator (V1)

Multivibrator (V8)

Practice Exercise - MM50000046

Practice Exercise cont'd - MM50000048

Practice Exercise cont'd - MM50000050

Practice Exercise cont'd - MM50000052

Practice Exercise cont'd - MM50000054

Practice Exercise cont'd - MM50000056

Practice Exercise cont'd - MM50000057

Answer to Practice Exercises - MM50000058

Answer to Practice Exercises cont'd

Applications of RC and RL Circuits

Figure 16. Pulse reference periods

Section I. Series RL Circuit Response

Figure 17. RL circuit response to a step voltage

Figure 18. Universal time constant chart for series RL Circuit

Section II. RL Time Constants

Effect on Time Constant of Varying L and R

Table I. Voltage and current values when a positive step voltage is applied to a series RL circuit

Figure 19. Series RL circuit

Table II. Voltage and current values when positive step voltage is applied to a series RL circuit

Figure 20. Universal time constant for a series RC circuit

Section IV. Time Constants

Effect of Varying R and C

Table III. Voltage and current values when a positive DC is applied to a series RC circuit

Practical Applications of RC and RL Circuits

Figure 21. Response of a series RL circuit to an ideal rectangular pulse

Figure 22. Pulse with finite rise and decay times

Figure 23. Output voltage sources in RC and RL circuits

Response of an RC circuit - MM50000090

Figure 24. Effect of mediumtime constant squarewave input

Response of an RC circuit. cont'd

Figure 25. Waveshapes for shorttime constant RC circuit

Figure 26. Waveshapes for longtime constant RC circuit

Response of RL circuit cont'd

Figure 27. Effect of medium RL time constant

Figure 28. Effect of short RL time constant

Figure 29. Effect of long RL time constant

Response of an RC circuit - MM50000104

Figure 30. Response of RC circuit to triangular wave input

Figure 31. Capacitor and resistor voltages with triangular wave input

Figure 32. Varying the time constant with triangular wave input

Section III. High-Pass RC Circuit

Figure 33. Input and output pulses for a highpass, shorttimeconstant, series RC circuit

Long-Time Constant - MM50000112

Figure 34. Input and output pulses for a highpass, longtimeconstant, series RC circuit

Section IV. Low-Pass RC Circuit

Figure 35. Input and output pulses for a lowpass, shorttimeconstant, series RC circuit

Long-Time Constant - MM50000118

Figure 36. Input and output pulses for a lowpass, longtimeconstant, series RC circuit.

Section V. High-Pass RL Circuit

Figure 37. Input and output pulses for a highpass, shorttimeconstant, series RL circuit

Short-Time Constant

Figure 38. Input and output pulses for a long timeconstant series RL circuit

Section VI Low Pass RL Circuit

Figure 39. Input and output pulses for lowpass, shorttimeconstant, series RL circuit.

Long-Time Constant - MM50000129

Figure 40. Input and output pulses for a lowpass, longtimeconstant, series RL circuit

Section VII. RC Pulse-Shaping Circuits

Figure 41. Differentiator circuit input and output pulses

Differentation cont'd

Figure 42. Differentiator circuit output for common waveforms

Integration

Figure 43. Integrator circuit input and output pulses

Figure 44. Differentiator circuit input and output pulses

Integrator

Figure 46. Integrator circuit input and output pulses

Section IX. Summary and Review

Review Questions

Review Questions cont'd

Practice Exercise - MM50000151

Practice Exercise cont'd - MM50000153

Practice Exercise cont'd - MM50000155

Practice Exercise cont'd - MM50000157

Practice Exercise cont'd - MM50000159

Practice Exercise cont'd - MM50000161

Practice Exercise cont'd - MM50000163

Answer to Practice Exercise - MM50000164

Answer to Practice Exercise cont'd - MM50000165

Answer to Practice Exercise cont'd - MM50000167

Timing Circuits